The fertile terrace between Auer/Ora, Neumarkt/Egna, and Montan/Montagna is an ancient cultural landscape. Castelfeder was the center of human existence in the south of South Tyrol for thousands of years. There are traces of settlements from the Stone and Bronze Ages. The remains of a castle complex, the legendary fertility chute and the walls of the Barbara Chapel bear witness to a mystical past. Also, Raetians, Romans, and other tribes who settled in the area around the hill retreated to the 400-meter-high hill in troubled times and left their traces.
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire had Castelfeder refortified as a bastion against the Germanic tribes shortly after the year 500. On this "acropolis," hundreds of people could find refuge together with their cattle and supplies. The last remains of the 500-meter-long ring wall of this largest fortress of the Adige Valley are the "Kuchelen," whose construction resembles the city wall of Constantinople.Because of the Mediterranean vegetation, the area was called the "Arcadia of Tyrol" by romantic poets. The Castelfeder hill is important not only from an archaeological and historical point of view, but also from an ecological one. Thus, a zone with an area of about one hundred hectares was placed under landscape protection as a biotope years ago. Due to the Mediterranean climate, it is particularly mild on the hill as early as March. Today, Castelfeder is home to some animals that have become rare in Europe. The biotope's flora and fauna can be explored on the nature discovery trail.